WHAT IS ARITHMETIC?
It is a branch of Mathematics that consists the study of numbers and basic calculations we do in every day life: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Arithmetic also includes other skills that are related to the four operations, e.g. fractions and percentage that are related to division.
What is mental arithmetic?
It means calculations you do in your mind, without writing down.
How to help your child with calculations at home?
You can do this in two simple ways:
• by doing everyday tasks together, e.g. measuring ingredients, working out change
• playing games with your children – particularly games that use counters, dice, playing cards and paper money and which create opportunities for talk.
Here is some ideas:
EYFS AND KS1
- Children can use practical equipment ( lego, marbles, cars...) to count out the correct amount for each number in the calculation and then put them together to find the total, e.g. 6 + 2
- When children are learning to add by counting on, they should always start with the larger number. Have two groups of objects but cover one so that it can not be counted, e.g. 6 + 2
- When adding two 2 digit numbers, children can use jottings, e.g. 34 + 29
Children can use practical equipment to count out the first number and removing or taking away the second number to find the solution, e.g. 9 – 4
When taking away two digit numbers, children can use jottings, e.g. 54 – 23
- You may also hear your child talking about finding the difference. To find the difference, they are looking at how many more or how many less, it will still be recorded as a subtraction, e.g. 7 – 4
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION AND DOUBLING
- Children should experience doubling and simple multiplication in practical situations. They may also investigate resources such as ice cube trays and baking tins which are arrays.
MULTIPLICATION AS AN ARRAY
Children need to understand how arrays link to multiplication through repeated addition and be able to create their own arrays.
SIMPLE DIVISION AND HALVING
Children should experience halving and simple division in practical situations such as sharing fruit at snack times.
DIVISION AS SHARING
Children naturally start their learning of division as division by sharing, e.g. 6 ÷2.
DIVISION AS GROUPING
To become more efficient, children need to develop the understanding of division as grouping, e.g. 6 ÷2.
DIVISION WITH REMAINDERS
To continue their learning, children need to understand that division calculations sometimes have remainders, e.g. 13 ÷ 4.
Children need to know whether the remainder needs to be rounded up or down depending on the question.
The football team are playing at another school. There are 14 girls playing and every car can take 4 girls. How many cars will be needed?
GAMES AND ACTIVITIES:
NUMBER BONDS, MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
MENTAL MATHS CHALLENGE
KS2 GAMES AND CHALLENGES
Giving your children a positive attitude to learning is something every parent can do – no hangups!
Talk to your children during every day tasks and encourage them to see the mathematics in them – link it to real life.
Don’t shy away from maths, even if you didn’t like it at school, playing games goes a long way to support their learning – make it fun!